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In the year 1962, there was an outbreak of war which threatened to be the third world war. It was in the month of October, and it lasted for two weeks. This war was referred to as the Cuban missile. It all kicked off when the then president of US John F Kennedy broadcasted that he had received a message from the secret intelligence union that USSR was engaged in the task of putting up projectile bases in Cuba. There was tension between the two nations as they went head on in a battle of wits. This threatened the whole world as the two countries in question are in control of the most dangerous nuclear power which has the ability to destroy the whole world. When the crisis was resolved on 28 October it brought a sigh of relief to the whole world. There are various events that are attributed to this event.
Manhattan Engineer District
During the Second World War, the United States had proved its ability to destroy the whole face of the earth within seconds. The first atomic bomb that was sent was the one that destroyed Hiroshima in Japan. It did not take a long time before the other attack occurred in Nagasaki. The US through its plane "Enola Gay" flew to Japan and laid down the first ever heard atomic bomb. The bombings that occurred in Japan were a surprise and its effects were felt through out the world. These bombings had adverse effects on almost all individuals on earth.
Manhattan Engineering project was a term that was given to the first attempts made to generate an atomic bomb. This term was coined after the Manhattan District in New York where all the research during the earliest period of time was done. Physicists from foreign countries initiated the project immediately after the discovery of the nuclear fission in the year 1938. This occurred because, the American scientists were filled with the fear that Germans would start generating nuclear bombs hence posing a great threat on the American nation. This group of physicians contacted the president of the US, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, to ask for his support in the generation of the first nuclear atomic, bomb in the world. The laboratory that was used during all these initial projects was in New Mexico. This project was to be done with a lot of secrecy maintained. The scientists were not allowed to tell this project to their closest people even their wives. These scientists were not to tell anyone who their names were and were to live in a two hundred meter radius where they can be easily monitored.
There was great suspicion between the United States and the Soviet Union that was as a result of failure of the United States to reveal the secret of the atomic bomb generation in the country. The mention of an atomic bomb generation in the US raised the eyebrows of the Soviet Union president who was a dictator. The Soviet Union as opposed to the United States government opposed communism, and it wanted all the nations under its military power to do the same. He even proposed that all the nations that will oppose communism will be eligible for government aid to assist in their military development. The United States, on the other hand, knew that the Soviet Union was a threat to the survival of their army, which had been destabilized following the Second World War attacks. They therefore, refused to surrender their possession of the nuclear possessions. The United States held strongly to their policy that emphasized on communism as their political ideology and hence sought to assist Western Europe during the Soviet attacks. Due to this, the Soviet Union also started generating its first nuclear bombs which proved to be effective. The Manhattan project, therefore, by giving the United States the power to control the world’s largest and powerful atomic bombs, is seen as a contributor to the 1962 war that almost broke and posed a threat to the whole world. This is because it made the Soviet Union to also look for ways of finding powerful bombs that are to be used to protect the nation incase of an attack.
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President Truman Doctrine and Marshall plan
After the outbreak of the Second World War of 1945, there was the need for the countries in the world to enter into various peaceful negotiations. Almost all the nations had adopted communism as their philosophy. The two countries that had not adopted this philosophy were Greece and Turkey. The British government in the year 1947 confessed their inability to keep their army in Greece which is a non communist nation. The United States government under Truman as the President offered to give them support as he wanted almost all nations to reject communism ideology. President Truman at this time held the belief that the main duty for the American nation was to disturb. To him, the Soviet Union was a threat to the survival of the United States as a superpower. He, therefore, emphasized on the need to prevent this nation from any further growth. This attitude towards the Soviet Union was referred to as the Truman Doctrine.
Marshall Plan, on the other hand, came up after the American general who was called George Marshall. To Marshall, Europe was a poor nation and was at a threat of adopting communism. He, therefore, decided that for this nation to side with America, it was to be given government aid to boost the country’s economy and prevent them from adopting communism. He brought a well prepared scheme that was to be used in this process forward. This idea was fully backed by the United States but opposed by the Soviet Union. The choice was now on the Europeans side whether to adopt communism and fail in their economy or leave get American assistance. The move by the Marshall plan to include German was also a threat to the Soviet Union. This is because this is one of the nations that the Soviet Union fought to put him down during the Second World War; further it was seen as the only nation that had fought with the Soviet Union and was able to defeat it.
Various conferences were also held to discuss how peace was to be maintained between the nations so as to prevent the recurrence of the Second World War. Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union, described the aftermath of the second world war as the rise of two competing powers; that of the imperialists and capitalists. He referred to the two powerful nations as that of the communists and the other of the progressivisms. On the other hand, the United States President Harry Truman said that the aftermath of the Second World War was the rise of two opposing systems. One system is concerned with democracy while the other is geared towards making other nations subjects to their ruling. Harry Truman in his speech emphasized the need for American government to offer support for the young and poor nations who are facing a threat of adopting communism which is a philosophy adopted by the poor nations and the Soviet Union.
Between the years 1948-1949 the Soviet Union together with the Germans wanted to take over Berlin. Their efforts were frustrated when the American government through the Marshall plan intervened and within no time the Berliners were not for the idea that had been proposed by Khrushchev. The American government threatened to employ the use of their nuclear powers if the Soviet Union would not comply with the idea. In the year 1961 the Soviet Union constructed a world around West Berlin. This move by the Soviet Union was a need to prevent the Germans from moving away from the USSR and supporting the Americans.
The Soviet Union President threatened the Americans that he was going to act on West Berlin as soon as the congress elections that were going on in the US are over. This to Kennedy in the United States was a call to make him get ready for a fight with the Soviet Union over Berlin. This to him was a major threat as he had promised to protect the people of West Berlin from any attacks from the Soviet Union. Kennedy saw this as a challenge since thousand troops both from Germany and the Soviet Union had surrounded Berlin and would do whatever they wish with the city. There was only one solution that the United States had to prevent attacks on Berlin and that was the use of their nuclear weapons. This therefore proves to be one of the events that led to the 1962 war as this was the worst alternative that could be used.
The Bay of Pigs invasion was a term used to refer to the planned attack by the CIA. This attack was intended to remove from power Fidel Castro who held onto the communist ideology during his reign over Cuba, which is located a few miles from the Florida coast. Soviet Union was forced to intercede as Castro had sought their assistance. The effort to invade Cuba therefore turned out to be a total failure and hence the reign of Kennedy as the president was questioned. This event was extremely crucial to the United States, Soviet Union and the whole world. The events that took place were recorded in history of the society and have remained in memories for a lengthy period of time. According to Fidel Castro, the failure of the Bay of Pigs attack meant that another attack was possible. He sought the aid of the Soviet Union to assist in protecting his nation. Khrushchev had proposed a plan of setting up missiles in the nation of Cuba in preparation of any attack. He therefore saw this as a good idea and he was for it.
In the year 1962, Fidel Castro allowed the Soviet Unions to start installations of the Missiles in Cuba. In October, the crisis occurred in the United States on recognizing that the Missiles have been set up in Cuba. When Kennedy was informed about this he set up his investigation and sends a group of investigators to handle the case. Kennedy after these investigations sought to prevent any further missiles being brought to the island. He regarded a further launch of a nuclear weapon in Cuba by the USSR be viewed as a hit on the United States. When this crisis was announced to the public tensions started to build up between the two nations. This event is regarded as one that led to the nuclear attack of the year 1962 since the United States had seen that the only solution was the use of nuclear weapons.
The almost outbreak of the third world war of the year v1962 has been attributed to various issues. Among this issues and events are people: the president of United States and the President of Soviet Union who played a key role together with the leaders of other nations. Technology also has played a key role in this war. The two super powers have devoted most of their resources in building up nuclear weapons. The presence of nuclear weapons has played a major role in maintaining peace in the nations. Various conferences have been held between the Soviet Union and the United States that are geared towards maintaining a healthy relationship between the two nations.